J. David Hacker, a professor at Binghamton University, comparing 1870 census data with 1860 census data, has determined that the Civil War death toll is underestimated by 20%. Rather than the 618,222 men, he calculates that 750,000 men died in this most deadly war in American history.
There is a dispute about the true cost in human lives as the number of indirect victims of the Civil War is not part of the calculation and his work is based on the 1870 census which is broadly recognized as being poorly compiled, particularly in the South. Even so, his work has merit.
You can listen to interview with NPR or read the transcript of the interview here. The comments are enlightening.
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